Shin splints or compartment syndrome, to give it its technical name, is one of the most common running injuries, it manifests itself as a pain that occurs in the front of the lower leg. The pain you'll feel with shin splints is usually on the outer front portion of the lower leg (deep anterior compartment syndrome) or on the back inside of the lower leg (posterior medial compartment syndrome).
Causes: Shin splints can be common among beginner runners because they may do too much too soon. There are several causative factors, the main one being a biomechanical issue at the ankle joint called hyperpronation, where the longitudinal arch of the foot has collapsed and the ankle roles in during activity, this results in the muscles of the calf having to work overtime during exercise to try and stabilise the ankle joint resulting in them growing and adapting too quickly for the sheath that covers them and the leg compartment that they are contained in. Supination, where the exerciser runs on the outside of the foot, can in some cases also cause the issue.
Upping your running distances too quickly, running on hard or uneven surfaces can put added strain on your lower leg muscles. causing your front leg muscles to work harder to keep your feet stabilized. This biomechanical flaw may be made worse by a poor running shoe with poor support, too much or too little cushioning can also be a factor, always get professional help choosing quality running shoes.
Recovery: For shin splints, there are several steps you can take to speed recovery. First, to reduce the pain, use an ice pack on your lower legs after you run. Keep ice on for ten to fifteen minutes every 4 to 6 hours, and make sure your foot is elevated.
Here are 7 Ways to Prevent Shin Splints, and if your pain persists, see an orthopaedist about the possibility of a stress fracture.
1Don't Increase Your Mileage Too Quickly
Shin splints, like most running injuries, are considered an overuse injury because they usually occur when a runner (especially for those who are new to running) increases their mileage or intensity too quickly and does not allow for recovery time.
Cut back on your running and consider taking a few days off altogether. The important thing is not to run through the pain. Listen to your body and back off when you begin to feel pain. With all that extra downtime, you'll have plenty of opportunities to stretch your calves and strengthen your lower leg muscles. Be particularly careful not to overstretch; ease into your stretches gradually.
2Run on Softer Surfaces When Possible
Running on hard surfaces, such as concrete, increases the stress and impact on your muscles, joints, and bones. It's important to vary your running surfaces. Try to find grass or dirt trails to run on, especially for your higher mileage runs. Running on a treadmill is easier on your body than running on the roads or sidewalks, so you may want to opt for treadmill runs one or two times a week.
3Give Yourself Enough Rest and Recovery Time
When you first get started with running, try to avoid running two days in a row, to limit the pounding on your muscles, joints, and bones, and give your body a chance to recover. Even if you're an experienced runner, taking at least one or two days off from running each week reduces your risk of shin splints and other overuse injuries. A rest day can be a complete day off or low-impact cross-training activity, such as swimming or biking.
4Get the Right Running Shoes
Running in shoes that have lost their cushioning can lead to shin splints. You should replace your running shoes every 300-400 miles. Wearing the wrong shoes may also lead to shin splints, so check your shoes to see if you might need more stability or cushioning. Get advice from an expert at a running specialty store to make sure you're wearing the right running shoes for your foot and gait.
Also, try inserting over-the-counter heel lifts so that your calves don't have to stretch as far. Finally, make sure that you have good running form. If you lean forward too much when you run, you may be pulling too hard on your calf muscles.
5Toe Raises to Prevent Shin Splints
If you experience shin pain when running, it may be because of weak anterior tibialis muscles, which are on the front side of your lower leg. This muscle is responsible for flexing the foot upward and, because it's often underdeveloped in non-runners, you may start feeling shin pain and develop shin splints if you're new to running or you increase your distance too quickly.
Doing simple exercises such as heel raises or toe raises can help strengthen your calf and shin muscles, to help prevent shin pain. Doing those exercises post-run will also give you a nice stretch.
How to o Toe Raises
Toe raises are simple, very easy to do, you don't need any special equipment, and you can do them anywhere. Do them a few times a week to develop your anterior tibialis muscles muscle and prevent shin splints. Here's what to do:
1. Stand upright on the ledge of a step, with your toes hanging over the ledge.
2. Hold onto a wall, railing, or chair for balance.
3. Extend your toes as far out over the edge as you can. Only your heels should be on the edge.
4. Pull your toes on your right foot upward toward your shins as far as you can and hold for a brief second, feeling the contraction in your shins (anterior tibialis).
5. Release and slowly lower your toes to the starting position.
6. Do the same thing with your left foot.
7. Do 2 to 3 sets of 12 repetitions on each side.
6Avoid Heel Striking
The middle of your foot is the best place to land when running. You should land mid-sole and then roll through to the front of your toes. If you land on your heels, you're stopping your forward momentum and creating a lot of stress and impact on your lower legs, which can lead to shin splints. Landing on your toes overworks your calf muscles, which can be another contributing factor to shin splints and other overuse injuries.
Here are some ways you can try to avoid heel landing and practice landing on your mid-foot:
Most people will naturally land mid-sole when running without shoes. So try running on carpet, grass, or turf barefoot or in socks for short periods of time, so your body can find its natural stride. Start with 30 seconds at first and work your way up to a minute or more. This doesn't mean you should run barefoot all the time, since that could lead to injury. But running short intervals on a soft, safe surface allows you to practice mid-foot landing.
Another great way to practice mid-foot landing is by doing running drills such as butt kicks, skipping, high knees, running backwards, or side shuffles. When you do any of those drills, it’s impossible to land on your heels. So, the more you practice them, the more you’ll be accustomed to landing on the front part of your foot, as opposed to your heel. You can do running drills as part of your pre-run warm-up or work them into your run. For example, you could intersperse 30-second intervals of high knees or backwards running every 5-6 minutes during a 30-minute run.
Make sure that you don't lunge forward with your feet. This is especially important when running downhill, when many runners have a tendency to overstride. Focus on landing mid-sole, with your foot directly underneath your body with every step. Keep your arm swing low and short, so your feet stay underneath you and close to the ground. Try to keep your steps light and quick, as if you're stepping on hot coals
7Stretch Your Calves
If you feel mild shin pain as you're running stop and do a quick calf stretch. (If it's not mild pain or it's getting worse as you continue running, you should stop.)
Also, make sure you're stretching your calves after your workouts. If your calves are tight, massage them using a foam roller or other massage tool. Even just five minutes of self-massage after a run can make a big difference. Or treat yourself to a professional sports massage.